Sports venue lighting design standards and layout

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The modern stadium not only absorbs the latest development of contemporary architectural art and the essence of local human history in the architectural appearance, but also shapes the stadium architecture in line with the contemporary spirit, and all kinds of sports software and hardware facilities must be complete, of course, there must be a good lighting environment.
Lighting relies on the function of light to reasonably illuminate and act on the vision of athletes, referees and spectators. To enable athletes to focus on the full performance of their competition level and create good results; So that the referee can quickly make an accurate judgment; So that the audience can easily enjoy the athletes’ technical movements, feel the intense and lively competitive atmosphere on the field; Make the color TV broadcast picture clear and vivid. Therefore, a good lighting environment plays an important role in the modern stadium, so the stadium lighting construction must master the following three principles:

(1) Meet the visual requirements of athletes during the game, so that the objective impact of lighting on the game is minimized;
(2) To meet the visual requirements of the audience, so that the discomfort caused by lighting when watching the game is minimized;
(3) Meet the lighting requirements of color TV broadcasting and improve the quality of broadcasting. 1. Sports venue lighting design standards

Comprehensive stadium competition projects are mainly track and field, football, etc., the main lighting design standards are:

(1) Guidelines for artificial lighting of football stadiums: FIFA. The standard includes competition classification, lighting requirements, recommended values of lighting parameters, field lighting measurement and other contents, and is the most complete and latest standard in the field of artificial lighting at present. This standard was applied at the 2002 Korea-Japan World Cup.
(2) Multi-functional indoor stadium artificial lighting guidelines: International Sports Federation (GAISF), European Broadcasting Union (EBU). For the first time, the standard introduced high definition color television transmission (HDTV) provisions, and the lighting standard was further improved. However, HDTV is still in the development stage, so the requirements are based on the knowledge and experience available at the time the standards were developed; Compared with other standards and specifications, HDTV also requires an emergency system to provide minimal emergency TV lighting.
(3) Lighting Guidelines for sports events with color television broadcast and film systems: CIE Document 83.
The CIE83 technical document focuses on the lighting requirements of color television photography, and also explains the differences between the requirements of television photography and film photography.
(4) Guidelines for the determination of luminosity requirements for sports lighting devices: International Commission on Lighting (CIE) Document 67. In 1986, the CIE4.4 Committee of the International Lighting Commission developed the technical document CIE67. The purpose of this report is to develop standard procedures for the calculation, measurement and reporting of lighting characteristics of indoor and outdoor sports lighting installations.
(5) Football Stadium lighting: International Commission on Lighting (CIE) Document 57. In 983, the International Lighting Committee officially promulgated the Football stadium lighting standard (Lighting for footbal1), that is, the CIE57 technical document. The standard is a guidance document for flood lighting in football fields and applies from training grounds to stadiums with stands.
(6) Civil building lighting design standard: GBJ133-90. It will come into force on January 1, 2004.
(7) Electrical design code for civil buildings: JGJ/T16-92. It came into force on 1 August 1993.
(8) Sports building design code: JGJ31-2003J265-2003). This code is the industry standard jointly issued by the Montde Ministry and the General Administration of Sport of China, and has been implemented since January 1, 2003. This standard is the first professional standard for sports construction in China.
Which of the above standards is used for venue lighting depends on the positioning of the functional needs of the site by the builder, that is, the nature and level requirements of the competition. The International Sports Federation (GAISF) classifies the game according to whether it is professional or amateur, while FIFA classifies it according to whether it is televised. Generally speaking, the standards set by international sports organizations are higher than and smaller than China’s national and industry standards, therefore, the construction of sports venues is simply used for domestic competitions and training, which can be based on the above (6), (7), (8) standards, and other standards are supplemented. If it is used as an intercontinental or international competition venue, it must be designed in accordance with the principle of (1) ~ (5) standards as the main and other as the auxiliary. The core content of lighting standards is illuminance standards and lighting quality standards, lighting quality standards include glare, light source color temperature,

Color rendering index, light directivity, green and energy saving requirements. 2. Sports venue lighting design mode

In the past, the design unit carried out the lighting system design (including calculation, scheme determination, equipment and control system selection, and even construction instructions, etc.) on the basis of the design assignment of the builder, and then commissioned the mechanical and electrical installation unit to construct, install, debug and deliver the lighting system according to the drawing. This mode of operation, which is suitable for the construction procedures of the past planned economy era, is now basically unworkable.
Today’s more common practice is that the architectural design unit first designs the architectural scheme, the architectural electrical design personnel determine the scheme design and design standards of the site lighting, and then the professional lighting design unit to deepen the design, which requires the architectural electrical design personnel, in the process of designing the site lighting system, first of all, to understand the relevant design norms and standards. Then according to the use function of the venue, the level of the venue, the level of sports competitions or the scale of various activities that will be held after completion, and the technical status that the lighting system equipment can achieve at this stage, a comprehensive analysis is carried out, and the

Design standard and system scheme of the venue lighting system are finally determined.

This mode of operation brings obvious benefits: the construction procedure is standardized and clear, which not only conforms to the national bidding regulations, but also facilitates the standardized construction of the project and plays a certain role in protecting the investment; The division of construction tasks is clear, and the repetitive labor, complex calculation and CAD drawing workload of the design institute is also appropriately reduced. Through the bidding of lighting integrators, the lighting control equipment can be selected from well-known brands at home and abroad with good prices, strong engineering implementation ability, service quality and high reputation of lighting system integration companies to ensure the overall quality of the project; Through the evaluation of bidding, the project investment is clear and reasonable; After the project is completed and put into operation, the integrator’s after-sales service work can be implemented. 3. Whether the layout of the sports venue lighting design and the installation of lamps are reasonable or not directly affects the effect and economy of the venue lighting. At present, the commonly used lighting methods in sports buildings are mainly as follows: outdoor sports venues, lamp pole type, four-tower type, multi-tower type, light belt type, light belt and lighthouse mixed type; Indoor sports venues, uniform distribution type (full star type), light belt type (over the field and over the field), mixed type.

3.1 Four-tower arrangement Until today, the vast majority of stadium lighting facilities in the past are four-tower arrangement, if we do not demand a number of shortcomings (for example, different viewing directions require a large range of visual adaptation changes and effective stiff shadows), then it can still meet the basic requirements. Four lighthouses are set at the four corners of the site, the tower height is generally 25 ~ 50m, and narrow beam lamps are commonly used. This arrangement is suitable for the football field without the track, the lighting utilization rate is low, the maintenance is difficult, and the cost is high. If the quality of lighting is not too demanding, it can meet the general requirements of athletes and spectators. A suitable illuminance distribution can be formed on the site by using the aiming of various beam angles. Today, however, film and television require high and uniform vertical illumination, requiring that the Angle of light incident on the far part of the site be much smaller than the prescribed limit. The effect of the higher brightness obtained by the use of large gas discharge lamps, coupled with the traditional tower height, makes it inevitable to produce excessive glare. The disadvantages of this four-tab light form are: the visual changes in different viewing directions are larger and the shadows are deeper. From the perspective of color television transmission, it is difficult to meet the vertical illumination in all directions and control the glare well. In order to meet the Ev/Eh 44 value requirements and reduce glare, it is necessary to take some improvement measures for the four-tower lighting mode:
(1) Move the position of the four towers to both sides and outside the boundary line, so that the opposite side of the site and the four corners can obtain a certain vertical illumination;
(2) Increase the number of casting lights on the lighthouse on the side of the direction of the main camera of the TV to strengthen the beam projection;
(3) Add light belt lighting on the top of the stand on one side of the direction of the TV main camera, and pay attention to controlling glare, so that the audience at both ends of the field should not be detected.

3.2 Multi-tower arrangement This type of lighting is set up on both sides of the field a group of lighthouses (or light poles), suitable for practice venues, such as football, volleyball, tennis, etc. Its outstanding advantages are less power consumption, vertical illuminance and horizontal illuminance is better. Due to the low light pole, this arrangement also has the advantages of cheap investment and easy maintenance.

The light pole should be evenly arranged, 6 or 8 towers can be arranged, the height of the light pole should not be less than 12m, the projection Angle should be between l50 and 250, and the projection Angle to the side line of the site should not exceed 750 and the minimum is not less than 450. Generally use medium beam and wide beam casting light, if there are spectator stands, aiming point layout work should be very detailed. The disadvantage of this kind of cloth light is that when the light pole is arranged between the venue and the audience, it will block the line of sight of the audience and eliminate the shadow is difficult. In the football field without TV transmission, the lateral arrangement lighting device adopts the multi-tower arrangement mode rather than the light strip arrangement mode. Usually the lighthouses are arranged on the east and west sides of the game, and in general, the lighthouses of the multi-tabu lights can be lower than the four corners. The multi-tower layout has four towers, six towers, eight towers and other layout methods. In order to avoid interference with the sight of the goalkeeper, with the midpoint of the goal line as the reference point, no lighthouses can be arranged within at least 10m on both sides of the bottom line. The lighthouse height of the multi-tabu lamp is calculated by using a triangle perpendicular to the court and parallel to the bottom line, ≥250, and the lighthouse height h≥15m.

3.3 Light belt arrangement The lamps are arranged in rows on both sides of the court to form a continuous light belt lighting system. Its lighting uniformity, the brightness between the players and the court is better. At present, it is recognized in the world that this way of lighting can meet the various requirements of color television broadcasting. The length of the light band exceeds the goal line by more than 10m (such as: sports fields with running tracks, the length of the light band is preferably not less than 180m) to ensure that the goal area appears to have sufficient vertical illumination from behind. At this time, the projection Angle can be reduced to about 200, and if a low-brightness illuminator is selected, it can be further reduced to about 150. Some stadium light belt lighting is very close to the field side line (its Angle is above 650), the field side can not get enough vertical illumination, so it is necessary to increase the “post-contraction” supplementary lighting.

Generally, several different beam angles are used in the light belt arrangement. Narrow beam is used for long-range projection, and medium beam is used for near-projection. Disadvantages of the light belt arrangement: the technology required to control glare is more strict, and the physical sense of the object is slightly poor. 3.4 Mixed layout Mixed layout is a new type of light distribution method that organically combines four or more tower layout with light belt layout. At present, it is a kind of cloth lamp form that solves the lighting technology and lighting effect better in the world’s large comprehensive stadium. The mixed arrangement absorbs the advantages of the two cloth lamps to strengthen the sense of entity, and the vertical illumination and uniformity in the four directions are more reasonable, but the degree of glare is increased. At this time, the four towers are often not set independently, but are combined with the building, so the cost is less.
The projection lights used in the four towers are mostly narrow beams to solve the long-range projection; The light band is mostly medium beam, solving the near projection. Due to the mixed arrangement, the projection Angle and azimuth arrangement of the four towers can be flexibly handled, the length of the light strip arrangement can also be appropriately shortened, and the height of the light strip can also be appropriately reduced.

3.5 Civil treatment and installation

The civil treatment of the stadium is closely related to the overall lighting scheme. When there is no ceiling or no ceiling on the auditorium, to use the light strip arrangement, it is necessary to consider setting up an independent light bridge. Whether to use four tabby lights, but also must seek the opinion of the urban planning department, and four tower, multi-tower lighting form and the overall artistic effect of the building is closely related. Regardless of the use of four towers, multi-tower, light strip or mixed layout, the installation and maintenance of lamps and lanterns should be considered in the selection of the program stage.
At present, many stadiums in the world use lighthouses, mostly three steel pipes or multiple steel pipe combination lighthouses, as well as variable section reinforced concrete, inclined reinforced concrete lighthouses and other forms. The following are discussed the lighthouses and light belts in the civil installation and treatment of attention to several problems.

3.5.1 Civil construction treatment of lighthouses

(1) The area of the light stand on the lighthouse is related to the form and quantity of the light, but the shape and proportion of the light stand should be freely chosen. The area of the lamp frame should be left with a margin for future development and expansion. (2) Although the height of the lighthouse must obey the functional requirements, whether the structure is reasonable, construction conditions and local climate conditions should also be seriously considered. (3) The maintenance and overhaul conditions are extremely important, and the elevator should be considered for maintenance or the entire light frame can be lowered to the ground for maintenance. (4) In coastal areas and areas with salt spray corrosion, salt spray proof reinforced concrete lighthouses should be prioritised to avoid the use of exposed steel structure light frames

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